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APA 6th Edition - Copenhagen Business School: General Guidelines

How to reference with APA



Acceptable abbreviations to use in the Reference List include the following :

Abbreviation      Book or publication part
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement

General Guidelines

APA style

There are two components to APA referencing: citing within the text of your paper, and the reference list at the end.

  • All sources of information and data, whether quoted directly or paraphrased, are cited with parenthetical references in the text of your paper.   For example:  (Mayer, 2010).
  • Double-space your entire paper, including the Reference list and any block quotes (unless advised differently by the guidelines from your study program or  your tutor/lecturer).


Other disciplines use a Bibliography to list work that is not cited in the paper.  In APA a Bibliography is not used at all.  The reference list is used and only includes sources that are actually mentioned in the paper.


Plagiarism is the use of another author’s ideas and words, either intentionally or unintentionally, without acknowledging the source of the information.  It is an academic offence and will be treated seriously by the Copenhagen Business School.

Avoid plagiarism by referencing correctly.

For information on how and why to avoid plagiarism please consult the guide Plagiarism & Academic Integrity.


Secondary referencing

Note: Secondary quotes should be used very rarely.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on either a print or an electronic source it must be included in the reference.

  • A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles) and MUST be included in your references.
  • It is often found on the first page of an article. Example: https://doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305.
  • DOIs are typically found on the top left-hand corner of abstracts, listed in the Table of Contents or printed at the top or bottom of an article.
  • You can use a metadata search system called to look up an article and find the DOI.  This site also includes a form which allows you to retrieve a DOI for journal articles, books, and chapters by simply cutting and pasting the reference list into the box.
  • Use the APA flowchart at to determine when to include DOIs, URLs, or database information in your reference citations.


Printable Guide


Mendeley is referencing software which allows you to:

  • store references
  • organise references
  • generate citations
  • generate reference lists
  • share references

To get a Mendeley account on the CBS Library Institutional Licence please visit CBS Mendeley Guide

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