There are three ways to refer to the works of other authors:
These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a broader segment of the source and condensing it. You will be able to demonstrate your understanding of what you have read.
When paraphrasing or referring to an idea from another piece of work, you should provide an in-text citation to acknowledge the source.
The research showed that security of attachment in offending populations decreases according to the severity and degree of psychopathology (Ogilvie, Newman, Todd & Peck, 2014, p.14).
During their research, Ogilvie, Newman, Todd and Peck (2014), found that security of attachment in offending populations decreases according to the severity and degree of psychopathology.
Direct quotations should be used sparingly in academic writing. Often, it is better to paraphrase or summarise what you have read.
If you do use a direct quotation it must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. It must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. You must indicate a quotation by using double quotation marks at the beginning and end of the text.
Always give the page number(s) (or paragraph number for non-paginated material) and place double quotation marks around the quotation. The in-text citation comes immediately after the quotation, even when it is not at the end of the sentence.
For page numbers, use the abbreviations p. for page and pp. for pages. List page numbers completely, for example pp. 176-179 instead of pp. 176-9.
“Piaget proposed that infants are born in a state of solipsism, meaning that they fail to distinguish between self and surroundings” (Mitchell & Ziegler, 2013, p. 52).
This quotation is followed immediately with the in-text citation.
If a quotation is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented about ½ inch (or 5 spaces) from the left margin and double-space the entire paragraph.
Example of a quote longer than 40 words:
The chief factors associated with these relationships are parental style and the quality of attachment. The pattern set by early attachment influences the character of subsequent relationships and the concept of the internal working models illuminating in this respect. It is especially useful in understanding the cycle of abuse (Mitchell & Ziegler, 2013, p. 247).
Summarising involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarised ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.