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Citing interviews, personal communications
Do not include personal communication in your reference list as this type of information is not considered ‘recoverable’. Instead, in brackets, cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication", and the date of the communication in the main body of the text.
Interview, personal communications
(C. Byers, personal communication, February 7, 2014).
Telephone calls, emails, personal interviews
If it is a research interview it should never be individually cited or treated as personal communications in APA Style, because this could compromise confidentiality. Researchers are prohibited by the APA Ethics Code from disclosing personally identifying information about research participants.
You can cite from your research interviews in different ways:
- Some authors quote participants without distinguishing them at all, like this: “Indeed, a comment by one of our participants illustrates some of these complex issues: [quote follows without other attribution].”
- Others identify participants by demographic or other data: “At my age I think we know who we are and what we are. (Female participant, 69 years of age).” You can also identify participants with letters (Participant A, Participant B), nicknames (Sonny, Tracey), or by role (Manager, Worker)
Choose one that best helps your reader.
Fore more information on this you can consult The APA Style Blog
Would you like to have a printed guide at hand? You can find a useful one here APA Guide for printing
Mendeley is referencing software which allows you to:
- store references
- organise references
- generate citations
- generate reference lists
- share references
To get a Mendeley account on the CBS Library Institutional Licence please visit CBS Mendeley Guide