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APA 6th Edition - Copenhagen Business School: Class Presentations & Handouts

How to reference with APA

General on Class presentations & handouts

Handouts distributed in class and presentation slides such as Powerpoint should be cited both in-text and on the References list.

Your own notes from lectures are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list.

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides and Handouts. The following is recommendations by  CBS Library including using numbers for the slides.

Lecture Notes & Power Points


For a downloadable file, like a PowerPoint or PDF:

Author, A.A. (year). Course code: Title of subject; week x notes (or title of notes) [Format]. Retrieved from URL


For lecture notes in html/web page form (e.g. notes that are on CBS LEARN pages):

Author, A.A. (year). Course code: Title of subject; week x notes (or title of notes). Retrieved from URL


Medaglia, R. (2018). KAN-CBUSO1001U: Strategic and Tactical Tools for E-Business [PowerPoint file]. Retrieved from

Hartmann, R. K. (2019). BA-BDMAO1001U: Managing Innovation in Organizations; week 6 lecture notes [PDF]. Retrieved from


Trzaskowski, J. (2018). KAN-CBUSO1002U: EU Internet Law; Week 3 learning plan. Retrieved from


Paraphrase: (Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Hartmann, 2019)


Quote: (Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Hartmann, 2019, p. 12)

Class hand-outs (physical)

Strictly speaking, any material that is only available in person (as in, you had to be in class in order to have this material handed to you, or it was sent via email) is regarded as personal communication, and should be cited as such.

However, if you believe the hand-out is essential course material and your lecturer would expect you to cite it just like you would cite something uploaded to CBS LEARN, you can use the following format:

Printed material distributed in class:

Author, A. A.. (year). Course code: Title of subject; Title of handout [Format]. City: Publisher.
Frick, T. (2019). KAN-CBUSV2034U: Digital Marketing Strategy and Technology [Class handout]. Copenhagen: Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School.
In-Text As above


Printable Guide


Mendeley is referencing software which allows you to:

  • store references
  • organise references
  • generate citations
  • generate reference lists
  • share references

To get a Mendeley account on the CBS Library Institutional Licence please visit CBS Mendeley Guide

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