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APA 7th Edition - Citation Guide - CBS Library


The final component of a reference is the source, which is the retrieval information.

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

The components of a source may change depending on the format of the work you are citing.

The source for a book is the publisher.

Hain, P. (2018). Mandela: His essential life. Rowman & Littlefield.

(Hain, 2018)

If you are using a portion of a book, such as a chapter in an edited book, the source also includes the information from the book being used.

Johnson, P. (2019). Efforts to ban Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird. In R.C. Evans (Ed.), Censored & banned literature (pp. 169–186). Salem Press.

(Johnson, 2019)

Article sources typically include the journal, volume, issue, page numbers, and DOI. Spell out the entire journal title; do not abbreviate it. The journal title and volume should be italicized.

Steckler, R. A., & Bartkowski, J. P. (2018). "God is my first aid kit": The negotiation of health and illness among Christian Scientists. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 57(3), 585–603.

(Steckler & Bartkowski, 2018)

If you are missing any of this information, omit it. This example does not have an issue number or a DOI.

Tremblay, M. S., Inman, J. W., & Willms, J. D. (2000). The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement in 12-year-old children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12, 312–323.

(Tremblay et al., 2000)

If an article has an article number, include it.

Van Hedger, S. C., Heald, S. L. M., & Nusbaum, H. C. (2019). Absolute pitch can be learned by some adults. PLOS One, 14(9), Article e0223047.

(Van Hedger, 2019)

If an article is freely available online and does not have a DOI, you may choose to add the URL to the full-text.

Rosener, A., Frigo, E., Ponischil, S., Bélanger, A., Rander, J., & Salazer, E. (2019, September 18). Leading from the center: Reimagining feedback conversations at an academic library. In the Library with a Lead Pipe.

(Rosener et al., 2019)

Database Information

Only include the name of a library database you used to retrieve information if the source you are using is exclusive to that database. Most journals, magazines, and newspapers would not fit this criteria. Several library databases, including A to Z the World, Cochrane Library, and some information in ERIC, Health and Wellness, and Opposing Viewpoints will fit into this category.

Denissen, S., Staring, W., Kunkel, D., Pickering, R. M., Lennon, S., Geurts, A. C. H., Weerdesteyn, V., & Verheyden, G. S. A. F. (2019). Interventions for preventing falls in people after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

(Denissen et al., 2019)

Locating DOIs

APA requires you to provide DOIs if available when citing a journal article. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. DOIs serve as a permanent link to electronic content. Because some databases generate dynamic links (i.e., links that change each time you access an article), it is impossible to use these links to direct someone to an article. If an article has a DOI, you can give that information and easily direct readers to your references. DOIs are commonly found in the database record, the journal's page for the article, or on the first page of the article itself. A DOI will be a string of numbers and slashes (possibly with letters) that begins with 10.

DOI in a database record

DOI in a PDF of a journal article

DOI on a journal homepage

Once you have a DOI, you can use a DOI resolver to access the article. There are several resolvers, but the is recommended. Input the entire DOI, and you will be directed to the main article page. DOI resolver

Sometimes this DOI will take you to a database that the Tyree Library does not have access to. If this is the case, please call the Reference Desk at 352-395-5409 for help retrieving the full-text of an article.

Internet sources typically include the website on which the source is located and the URL. If the author and the website title are identical, omit the website title. You may elect to add a retrieval date to the URL if the information is expected to change.

Leibsohn, D., & Mundy, B. E. (n.d.). Surveying the Pre-Columbian. Vistas: Visual Culture in Spanish America, 1520-1620.

(Leibsohn & Mundy, n.d.)

Royal Collection Trust. (n.d.). Albert's life and times.

(Royal Collection Trust, n.d.)

Levine, E. (1936). Amateur contest for children Final eliminations, Sept. 24, 1936 [Image]. Library of Congress.

(Levine, 1936)

Feldman, J. (2019, October 9). Dogs can help you live longer, as if you needed another reason to get one. HuffPost.

(Feldman, 2019)

U.S. Department of State. (2019, April 9). Afghanistan travel advisory. Retrieved October 9, 2019 from

(U.S. Department of State, 2019)

If a URL is excessively long, you may use a URL shortener like tinyurl ( or ( if you wish.

American Library Association. (n.d.). Performance of or showing films in the classroom.

(American Library Association, n.d.)

Film and Television

The source for film and television is typically the production company. Multiple production companies are separated by semicolons. For online films/television, you may choose to add a URL.

Boyle, D. (Director). (2008). Slumdog millionaire [Film]. Celador Films; Film4.

(Boyle, 2008)

Macdonald, K., Burk, B., Carpenter, B., King, S., & Abrams, J. J. (2016). 11.22.63 [TV series]. Carpenter B.; Bad Robot Productions; Warner Bros. Television.

(Macdonald et al., 2016)

Online Videos

Online videos follow the same guidelines for Internet sources. The source component consists of the website and the URL.

Karim, J. [jawed]. (2005, April 23). Me at the zoo [Video]. YouTube.

(Karim, 2005)

Items with no source are considered personal communication and would be cited in the text only; there will be no references list entry. This also includes items that are not retrievable by the reader. Examples of personal communication include emails, personal interviews, live speeches, etc.

(J. Sasser, personal communication, October 9, 2019)

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